A Word to the Teacher
Useful guidelines for brainstorming (Harmin, 1994):
Accept every idea without judgment. Unusual ideas may generate new and

valuable ideas.
Write all ideas as they are offered. No judgment is involved at this point. Keep
open minds during brainstorming.
Generate ideas quickly. High energy and quick pace can lead to creativity and
unusual ideas. If ideas are generated too fast for one recorder, utilize two or more
recorders alternating writing during the process.
Mental Imagery
Research shows that engaging students in the creation of nonlinguistic
representations stimulates and increases activity in the brain. The most direct way to
generate nonlinguistic representation is to simply create a mental picture (Marzano,
Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).

Strategies for Creating Learner-Centered Instruction
Classroom design and arrangement can directly facilitate or interfere with the
learning climate in the classroom. Good spatial definition can help students feel
secure by specifying for them where the structured learning areas begin and
end. The spatial definition can define circulation patterns in the room during lab
investigations, which also can define appropriate interaction patterns and help to
guide students’ work and behaviors. The way the stations are designed can ease the
transition from one instructional activity to another.
Stations can be arranged visually to focus students’ attention by—
Using labels and signs to designate areas
Using colors to attract visual attention and define spaces
Taping lines on the floor or wall to define different work areas
Moving furniture to define spatial boundaries
Displaying group work, like a poster, to designate that group’s space
Stations set up in the classroom should be arranged so that students have easy
access to each other, to the teacher, and to the materials they need for the specific
learning assignment (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1994).
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