A Word
to the Teacher
Throughout Gateways,
students are required to maintain a written science notebook
or interactive notebook. The student edition asks students to record their thoughts,
observations, collected data, drawings, and other information on a regular basis.
The back of the student edition includes an appendix that provides information and
scoring rubrics for many of the learning strategies that are employed throughout the
5 E lessons.
Instructional Strategies
uses active,
varied instructional approaches during the units of study.
Students learn the “whys and hows”
of science rather than just the “whats and
whens.” The built-in variety of instructional strategies helps motivate both teachers
and students, while the built-in consistency of the lesson structure provides a
familiar, nonthreatening learning environment.
Strategies for Activating Prior Knowledge
Brainstorming is a process used to generate ideas for individuals or for groups.
There are no “dumb ideas.”
Sometimes seemingly foolish ideas serve
as a catalyst
for other ideas.
Brainstorming is not a debate, and it is not an evaluation of ideas.
The quantity of brainstormed ideas is more important than the quality.
Possible organizational strategies to involve everyone in the process include:
T eacher announces that everyone must generate three ideas on three separate
sticky notes.
Sticky notes are brought into a small-group discussion;
all ideas are
added to the group’s list.
A round-robin session involves every student contributing one idea to a group
Students may have
permission to pass after the first round and the session
continues until all group members have
passed during a round.
Useful guidelines for brainstorming (Harmin, 1994):
Accept every idea without judgment.
Unusual ideas may generate new and
valuable ideas.
Write all ideas as they are offered.
No judgment is involved at this point.
open minds during brainstorming.
Generate ideas quickly.
High energy and quick pace can lead to creativity and
unusual ideas.
If ideas are generated too fast for one recorder, utilize two or more
recorders alternating writing during the process.
Mental Imagery
Research shows that engaging students in the creation of nonlinguistic
representations stimulates and increases activity in the brain. The most direct way to
generate nonlinguistic representation is to simply create a mental picture (Marzano,
Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).
Previous Page Next Page